Doctoral education has experienced dramatic changes all over the world in the last three decades. Currently, Russia is at the beginning of a doctoral education transformation to structured programs according to needs of knowledge-based economies. This paper aims to identify national-level barriers to PhD completion in Russian doctoral education. The data from the empirical study in highly selective Russian universities that participate in a special government program were employed. About 40% of all doctoral students participated in the Russian Federation study at these universities. The following problems were revealed and discussed in the research: (1) problems of transition to a structured model of doctoral education, (2) diffusion of doctoral education’s goals, (3) unpreparedness of Russian universities for the massive expansion of PhD education, (4) ineffective mechanisms of doctoral student selection, (5) a lack of funding and a need for doctoral students to have paid work, (6) excessive dependence on supervisors and (7) insufficient study time and skills for meeting the requirement for publications before the date of defence. Some problems correlate with the global challenges, but some are unique to the Russian institutional context. The relevance of the Russian case to understanding the worldwide transformation of the doctorate is discussed.
This article presents the results of a cross-institutional survey on PhD students’ supervision at Russian universities. It is aimed at answering three questions concerning (1) styles of PhD supervision and their prevalence, (2) the relation between supervision style and PhD students’ satisfaction with their supervisor, and (3) the relation between supervision style and PhD students’ expected time-to-degree. We propose the empirically driven categorization of six supervision styles: superhero, hands-off supervisor, research practice mediator, dialogue partner, mentor, and research advisor. The most problematic category, characterized by providing no help for PhD students, was named “hands-off supervisors.” For this category PhD students reported the lowest level of satisfaction, and the highest expected time-to degree. Nonetheless, the large share of PhD students who are satisfied with hands-off supervisors may evidence a presence of a disengagement compact between PhD students and supervisors in Russian universities. Two categories of supervisors characterized by the highest level of PhD students’ satisfaction and shortest expected time-to-degree were named “superheroes” and “mentors.” These supervisors are reported to perform managerial and expert functions, which emphasizes the critical importance of these functions.
This paper aims to explore the response-order effects for rating questions presented in item-by-item and grid formats. It was hypothesized that the primacy effect occurs for both formats of questions, and that this effect is dependent on age, education, and type of device used for responding to questions. Two randomized experiments were conducted in 28 pre-course surveys of massive open online course students (N = 22,910). Our findings suggest that the order of response options affects respondents’ perception of the option lists and their responding patterns. The primacy effect is found for the item-by-item question, while there is no evidence for the presence of such an effect for the grid question format. Primacy effect for the item-by-item layout is lower for respondents with higher education degree while there are no interaction effects between ordering and age, gender, and type of device. For a grid question, mixed results were observed.
Based on the survey and data of semi-structured interviews with faculty in one of the leading research universities in Russia the article reveals key sources of work related stress for academics in Russia. Increasing requirements for academic performance, a large amount of administrative burden and disruption of work-life balance are among them. We argue that stress in Academia is determined by global trends caused by neo-managerial reforms of science and higher education, as well as by participation of universities in the race of international rankings. We also show that continuous character of academic work is associated with fuzzy boundaries between work and leisure, which make academic profession relatively stressful by itself. According to the study, the risk groups in terms of stress are young employees, and those who engage largely in administrative work. At the end of the article, we discuss the concept of stress in the field of academic work and raise the question about the ratio between the positive effects of stress and the risks of the negative impact it may have on the Academia.
The chapter examines the notion of cumulative vs. non-cumulative knowledge as it applies to the financial literacy. The case that mass public education programs may have a tendency to curricularize knowledge, which means shifting knowledge from cumulative, descriptive kinds closer to non-cumulative or normative kind. When certain claims cross the border from cumulative, descriptive realm into the non-cumulative, normative realm, they become vulnerable to rejection, and may compromise large bodies of cumulative knowledge that support the normative claims. We should use the pragmatic and institutionalist epistemological thinking to prevent this from happening. We must know how institutions operate in the real world, and what are the likely unintended consequences of the curricularization of knowledge.
The article investigates the accessibility of mobile and networking technologies to schoolchildren of different ages living in various areas and how they use these technologies. The author considers the potential ways in which modern technologies can be used in education. The potential benefits of such technologies are particularly promising for rural schools. The article comments on the modern trend to create a seamless educational environment on the basis of e-learning.
The article reviews the results of changing the survey mode from PAPI (paper and pencil interviewing) to CAPI (computer assisted personal interviewing) in some panel household surveys in different countries. Based on a number of experimental and non-experimental studies within the panel household surveys, we explored the effect of using CAPI on data collection process as a whole and data quality, in particularly. We showed that CAPI has a number of advantages over PAPI. Using of CAPI leads to the reduction of the fieldwork duration. In addition, CAPI is positively perceived by respondents and interviewers, does not have a negative effect on response rates and panel attrition rates. Moreover, it reduces missing data. At the same time, some studies suggest that using CAPI may lead to the increase of measurement error in sensitive and open-ended questions. Researchers should also take into consideration some technical and practical issues related to programming, training and selection of interviewers, as well as the choice of hardware and software used in CAPI.
The article attempts to analyze the current situation in training scientific and pedagogical personnel, as well as certain reasons for the low indicators of candidate-of-sciences theses defended in recent years. There are analyzed the state and dynamics of the system of postgraduate training in the post-Soviet period, including changes that came into force in 2013 and 2014 – those of assigning an educational status to postgraduate studies and of increasing requirements imposed on applicants of academic degrees. It is discussed how these changes fit the global context of postgraduate education development, whether they can be considered an explanation for the decrease of theses defences. The article proves that the negative trends observed today in the sphere of scientific and pedagogical personnel training are determined by the processes occurring in higher education and science in the post-Soviet period and by the problems arisen as a result of these processes. The empirical base of the research is a survey of 1,866 graduate students in 11 Russian universities participating in Project 5–100, as well as semi-structured interviews with 20 graduate students and 11 university staff responsible for the implementation of graduate programmes. The key problems of the Russian postgraduate studies identified on the basis of the empirical study are the following: (1) poor quality of enrollment; (2) poor quality of scientific advisory; (3) insufficient financial support of postgraduates. The article suggests possible steps to overcome these problems.
The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design. All three require the ability of a worker to make meaning of his or her own life. he advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the dis- course of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self- design. All three require the ability of a worker to make meaning of his or her own life.advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the dis- course of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self- design. All three require the ability of a worker to make meaning of his or her own life.
Does public investment in educational innovations makes sense? Is there a tangible return on investment in innovations, either public or private? We know for certain that investments in expanding the existing modes of education do pay off (Becker 2009). But does it make sense to invest in innovation? This chapter will consider available evidence on impact of educational innovation, primarily at K-12 level. It will also demonstrate the need to conceptualize the impact of innovation. Work conducted within the next generation of educational reform should look very different from what we have done so far.
I argue for a more flexible, more realistic approach to change. We cannot expect all faculty overnight becoming top scholars in their fields. Unlike highly selective universities in countries with huge pools of talent, we cannot recruit the best only. But we can allow for more diversity in academic careers and use our strengths. We need to look for unique and idiosyncratic people like Susan, Michael, and Tony, and let them grow as scholars in their peculiar ways. Let us call this the authentic improvement theory. 7
The article discusses the deployment of a comprehensive reporting and monitoring framework used to evaluate the performance of state and private higher education institutions in Russia. By referring to diversified indicators including organizational, financial and economic, training, research, graduate employment, and other metrics, the authors spotlight key developments taking place in the Russian higher education system as well as areas where reorganization/optimization measures are required.
The article discusses a comprehensive reporting and monitoring framework used to evaluate the performance of state and private higher education institutions. By analyzing diversified indicators including regulatory compliance, organizational and economic indicators, training and research, and other metrics, the authors spotlight key developments taking place in the Russian higher education system as well as areas where reorganization/optimization measures are required.
The paper examines “Campbell’s Law”: “The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.” The examination of measurability leads to explaining the reason for existence of a class of unmeasurable phenomena. The author describes a kind of habitus in which a strong taboo against measuring must exist by necessity, not by choice. The taboo is, in effect, a result of degradation of a certain kind of habitus. And finally, the paper demonstrates under which conditions the Campbell’s law is in effect, and how we can mitigate its effects in social decision-making.
Within classical liberalism, we are free to pursue our private ideals of the good life, as long as we do not infringe on the rights and interests of others. Whether politics can really be non- teleological is debatable. 1 It is difficult to see how the contemporary state with its broad social policy agenda can be confined to the boundaries set by the classical liberalism theory. However, even assuming it can, the same principle is simply inapplicable to education. An educator by definition must embrace a shared ideal of the good life. ...